Durban – Conference of Parties – What Happened?

By: Dr. Ricky Rood , 08:26 PM GMT on دسمبر 12, 2011

Share this Blog
15
+

Durban – Conference of Parties – What Happened?

The Conference of the Parties in Durban, South Africa is over. The Conference of the Parties' (COP) are the annual meetings that are part of the governing body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. So what happened in Durban? (Rood Interviewed at livescience.com)

From the official point of view, the place to go is the UN Framework website. With a little bit of exploration, there are two official, short, perhaps preliminary documents. One is on the development of a Green Fund. This is something of a follow up from the 2010 COP in Cancun, Mexico. This is the development of a mechanism where the developed nations pay (certain) developing nations funds for both response to climate-change impacts and technological development. Tracing much further back, there were the seeds of this in the The Kyoto Protocol.

The other is being called the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. Here is the current official link and another link with a couple of readable introductory paragraphs. As I understand this agreement, in 2012 nations will start to develop a policy, a protocol, a treaty, some entity with legal implications, that will be completed in 2015 and will initiate reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in 2020.

It is hard to look at these short documents from Durban and to state with any precision what will happen. It is the nature of high level diplomatic documents to be ambiguous or perhaps to support flexibility so that the parties can agree to work together but can leave the details of implementation and execution to the individual parties. The implementation will vary widely from country to country.

Given this ambiguity allows people to see success and failure in different ways. It is a measure of success that the countries keep talking, and one gets the impression from year to year that more and more major greenhouse gas emitters are agreeing that something has to be done to try to limit warming and its societal disruptions. On the other hand, there is no real evidence that these continued international machinations are leading to meaningful reductions or strategies for reductions. It remains true that an international “solution” to the greenhouse gas emission problem is an unrealistic expectation, and solutions will trickle up from below. As the solutions trickle up perhaps some will be disruptive enough to markets and economies to have major impacts. Then these will define the international response.

What seems to be important to me? Durban continues to show the realignment of global power represented by the emergence of China as a economic and political power. The role of India, South Africa, and Brazil continues to grow. The European Union is in an interesting position, because of their commitment to the Kyoto Protocol, and the Kyoto Protocol, practically, expiring in 2012. There is, still, a seeming European commitment to emissions reductions, and this is motivating alliances of small island states and the “Least Developed Countries” with the European Union – at least there is a commitment to trying to reduce. The United States remains in its curious position as something of loner – a position that, IMHO, grows as the world economies realign. What is interesting to me is seeing that the countries that are most heavily investing in alternative energies are starting to say they might consider the 2020 reductions … even China, from Wall Street Journal.

Here are some links to different takes on the meeting:

Guardian: Durban a breakthrough leading towards a possible global treaty

Asian Age: India-EU deal saves global climate meeting.

Irish TImes: Durban falls short.

BBC: Durban winners and losers.

Aljazeera: “Important Advance”

Washington Post: Last Minute Compromise.

And here is a nice analysis from Mother Jones.


I will end this potpourri of Durbanesque events with a couple of points from the International Energy Agency (IEA). What is the IEA? From their website:

“The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous organisation which works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond.

Founded in response to the 1973/4 oil crisis, the IEA’s initial role was to help countries co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in oil supply through the release of emergency oil stocks to the markets.” (about the IEA)

Prior to the Durban Conference the IEA did a press release associated with their annual World Energy Outlook. (Executive Summary ) The IEA documents state that the lock-in to current energy infrastructure and investments is making it increasingly difficult to imagine holding global-average warming to 2 degrees C. This year they do a thorough analysis of coal and the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. And in an Durban-related interview IEA Chief Economist, Fatih Birol, says that we are currently on the track for six degrees C warming. This analysis of our energy reality places any optimism reflected in some of the articles above in stunning realism. Here is the start of the Executive Summary:

“There are few signs that the urgently needed change in direction in global energy trends is underway. Although the recovery in the world economy since 2009 has been uneven, and future economic prospects remain uncertain, global primary energy demand rebounded by a remarkable 5% in 2010, pushing CO2 emissions to a new high. Subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption of fossil fuels jumped to over $400 billion.” Executive Summary

Without the availability and implementation of a low-carbon energy infrastructure that is cheap relative to fossil fuels, we have few choices and weak incentives to face the needed emissions reduction. So from Durban we are left with the same difficult choices, but with something of a new agreement and growing feeling of urgency for moving forward.

r


A new survey from Yale Project on Climate Change Communication: Majority in U.S. Support Emissions Reduction


Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 366 - 316

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8Blog Index

366. overwash12
06:05 PM GMT on دسمبر 26, 2011
Quoting NeapolitanFan:
Another blow to the fraudulent hockey schtick:

Link
Better not let the Tea Partiers get wind of this,they will go further off their rocker,if that is at all possible!
Member Since: êèوêè 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1457
365. Patrap
05:43 PM GMT on دسمبر 26, 2011
Georgia River Reindeer Population Dramatically Dropping (PHOTOS)
First Posted: 12/25/11 10:16 AM ET Updated: 12/25/11 10:16 AM ET


If Santa is ever in need of some replacement reindeer, he will have considerably less to choose from than he would have 10 years ago.

The world's largest reindeer population has plummeted up to 92 percent in the last few decades. Once standing at 900,000, the George River herd now stands at 74,000, according to Survival International.

Important to the Innu and Cree people of Quebec and Labrador in eastern Canada, iron-ore mining, hydro-power flooding and road building are reportedly to blame for the depleting numbers of reindeer.

Innu elder and Chief Georges-Ernest Gregoire told Survival International: "All the massive industrial 'development' projects that have been imposed on our land in the last forty years have undoubtedly had a cumulative impact on the size of the caribou herd. That is why we need real control over our territories and resources, and why we must be involved as equals in decisions that affect our lands and the animals that live there."

Known as caribou in North America, the hunting season was delayed this year due to concerns over the stability of the George River herd. Environment and Conservation, Labrador and Aboriginal Affairs made the announcement in August this year, days before the hunting season was due to start. The season was reduced from eight months to three months with the season officially starting on December 20 this year, according to The Labradorian.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature writes the number of places in Canada where reindeer can be found has been greatly reduced. In Europe, poaching within the Russian Federation poses a major threat to the population.

This past week in Ohio, drivers were on the lookout for Santa delivering early presents as a patrolman rescued a lone reindeer along the northeast Ohio highway. The animal fell from a livestock truck after the driver hit a bump in the road and the doors of the trailer opened.

Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
363. NeapolitanFan
05:33 PM GMT on دسمبر 26, 2011
Another blow to the fraudulent hockey schtick:

Link
Member Since: دسمبر 10, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 303
362. Patrap
04:44 PM GMT on دسمبر 26, 2011
How Right-Wing Conspiracy Theories May Pose a Genuine Threat to Humanity
Tea Partiers, freaking out about "Agenda 21" and convinced global warming isn't real, are gumming up the works for those trying to save the planet.


December 25, 2011 |



The paranoia infecting a broad swath of the American right-wing can be comical at times -- think about Orly Taitz and her fellow Birthers. But we laugh at our own peril, because what Richard Hofstadter famously characterized as "the paranoid style in American politics" poses a serious threat to our future: the right's snowballing conspiracy theories could ultimately lead to disaster.

Consider what's happening in Virginia's Middle Peninsula on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, among the areas in the U.S. most vulnerable to climate change. Earlier this month, Darryl Fears, reporting for the Washington Post, offered a glimpse into the madness that city planners have faced in recent months as a local Tea Party group, convinced that a nefarious plot by scientists and city officials is afoot, have disrupted their work trying to mitigate the potential impacts of rising sea levels.

"The uprising," wrote Fears, "began at a February meeting about starting a business park for farming oysters in Mathews County." He continued:

The program to help restore the Chesapeake Bay oyster population was slated for land owned by the county, but it was shouted down as a useless federal program that would expand the national debt. The proposal was tabled.

As the opposition grew over the summer, confrontations became so heated that some planners posted uniformed police officers at meetings and others hired consultants to help calm audiences and manage the indoor environment, several planners said.

In James City County, speakers were shouted away from a podium. In Page County, angry farmers forced commissioners to stop a meeting. In Gloucester County, planners sat stone-faced as activists took turns reading portions of the 500-page Agenda 21 text, delaying a meeting for more than an hour.

"Agenda 21" is one of a number of silly but dangerous conspiracy theories sweeping through the fever swamps of the right. Although admittedly sinister-sounding, Agenda 21 is just a blueprint for sustainable development, especially in emerging economies. It outlines how wealthier countries can contribute to smarter growth through technology transfers and public education. It stresses the importance of fighting deforestation and conserving bio-diversity -- all things that normal people would consider wise.

The important thing to understand about Agenda 21 is that there is absolutely nothing binding or compelling member countries to implement any part of it. It's not a treaty -- it is entirely voluntary and certainly doesn't have any connection to local governments. Yet for the right, with its long John Birch Society undercurrent of paranoia about international institutions, Agenda 21 represents some kind of dark UN conspiracy to impose socialism on the "free world."

That craziness lies at the heart of Michele Bachmann's quixotic war on energy-efficient lightbulbs. Tim Murphy reported, "The Minnesota congresswoman is part of a movement that considers 'sustainability' an existential threat to the United States, one with far-reaching consequences for education, transportation, and family values."

Last year, during the Denver mayoral race, Tea Party candidate Dan Maes argued that a local bike-sharing program, a popular initiative among city residents, was a "very well-disguised" part of a plan by then-Denver mayor (and now Colorado governor) John Hickenlooper for "converting Denver into a United Nations community." Alex Jones constantly hawks the conspiracy. Glenn Beck warned it would lead to "centralized control over all of human life on planet Earth." And in September, Newt Gingrich, hoping to burnish his wingnutty creds, told a group of Orlando Tea Partiers that, if elected, his first order of business would be "to cease all federal funding of any kind of activity that relates to United Nations Agenda 21." (Currently, no federal funding of any kind is used for implementing Agenda 21.)

t's causing uprisings like that seen in Virginia at ordinarily dull city planning board meetings across the country. As Stephanie Mencimer reported for Mother Jones, "Agenda 21 paranoia has swept the Tea Party scene, driving activists around the country to delve into the minutiae of local governance... they're descending on planning meetings and transit debates, wielding PowerPoints about Agenda 21, and generally freaking out low-level bureaucrats with accusations about their roles in a supposed international conspiracy."

Agenda 21 is inextricably linked to the most dangerous conspiracy theory going: that 97 percent of the world's climate scientists are lying when they say human activities are contributing to global climate change. This, too, is supposedly in service of the goal of destroying capitalism, which means one has to believe that climatologists around the world are not only all very political -- enough to conspire to deceive the entire world -- but they also all share the same largely discredited ideology.

Back in Virginia, the Coastal Zone Management program is struggling to "help prepare for the predicted effects of climate change, especially sea-level rise on Virginia's coastal resources." The area is uniquely imperiled; in June, Darryl Fears, a science correspondent, reported that Hampton Roads is especially vulnerable because several rivers run through it on their way to the Chesapeake Bay. He continued:

Unfortunately, this crowded, low-lying area also has long-term geological issues to deal with. Thirty-five million years ago, a meteor landed relatively close by and created the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater. Hampton Roads is also home to a downward-pressing glacial formation created during the Ice Age. Scientists theorize that these ancient occurrences are causing the land to sink -- and together account for about one-third of the sea-level change.

Fears notes that "the water has risen so much that Naval Station Norfolk is replacing 14 piers at $60 million each to keep ship-repair facilities high and dry," but "this geology is lost in local meetings, where distrust of the local and federal governments is at center stage."

And their harassment is having the desired effect of "freaking out low-level bureaucrats" trying to prepare the area for the changes to come, preparations that have absolutely nothing to do with the United Nations, Agenda 21 or "socialism." According to Fears, Shereen Hughes, a former planning commissioner, is "worried that some officials are giving ground to fearmongers. The uprising against smart growth 'is ridiculous' and 'a conspiracy theory,' she said. But it's effective."

Planners aren't saying this is wrong, Hughes said, because "most are afraid they won't have a job if they're too vocal about this issue." Tea Party members have political allies who "might stand up" against planners who complain, Hughes said.

In his excellent book, Collapse, scientist Jared Diamond looked at a number of societies that had seen their physical climates change. He tried to determine what made some cultures die out while others persevered. According to Diamond, it wasn't the severity of the change, or its speed that was the determining factor. One important variable was the foresight of those societies' leaders -- their ability to properly diagnose the problem and adapt, to come up with proactive solutions to the problems they faced.

Diamond, in an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, said, "one always has to ask about people's cultural response. Why is it that people failed to perceive the problems developing around them, or if they perceived them, why did they fail to solve the problems that would eventually do them in? Why did some peoples perceive and recognize their problems and others not?" Diamond explained:

A theme that emerges...is insulation of the decision-making elite from the consequences of their actions. That is to say, in societies where the elites do not suffer from the consequences of their decisions, but can insulate themselves, the elite are more likely to pursue their short-term interests, even though that may be bad for the long-term interests of the society, including the children of the elite themselves.

Today, oil and gas corporations are still funding a bunch of crank climate change deniers in order to avoid regulations that might slow their "short-term interests" in extracting as much wealth as they can from traditional hydrocarbons. And here we have Tea Partiers -- a "movement" nurtured by business-friendly Republican operatives and backed by the Koch brothers' dirty energy money -- being whipped into a frenzy by the likes of Glenn Beck and shouting down local planners trying to do something about rising water levels. They're freaking out about energy-efficient lightbulbs and bike-sharing programs, the very sorts of things we need in order to stave off disaster.

So the next time you hear a wingnut spewing feverish nonsense about "climategate" or the "globalist agenda," remember that this is not just fodder for late-night TV monologues, but the kind of stuff that has in the past brought societies faced with changing environments to their ultimate end.



Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
361. Patrap
08:18 PM GMT on دسمبر 25, 2011



Wishing you and Your's the Very Best this Christmas Day and Season Dr. Rood.

Merry Christmas from Uptown NOLA
Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
360. cyclonebuster
08:15 PM GMT on دسمبر 25, 2011
More EAR CANDY. One for each ear.


img src="">

img src="">
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
359. cyclonebuster
02:12 PM GMT on دسمبر 25, 2011
MERRY CHRISTMAS!

PERFECTION by Jackie Evancho.



img src="">
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
358. overwash12
07:51 PM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Same to you,Rookie and everyone else on here! Merry Christmas and a happy new year! Now back to football!
Member Since: êèوêè 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1457
357. Some1Has2BtheRookie
06:25 PM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
I wish to thank each of you for your many splendid posts, knowledge, companionship and general great fun. The present I wish to give to us all is a Very Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays and may 2012 be the best year of your life. May we all remain safe, happy and well! .. I look forward to seeing each of you in the coming year. To my extended family, on this blog, all the best.

Merry Christmas, Professor Rood!
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
356. iceagecoming
04:44 PM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Worst Blizzard in Decades Hits Great Plains, Southwest
Whiteout conditions reported from Kansas to New Mexico

Bill Cook, an employee at the Best Western in Clayton, N.M., told the AP that he hadn't seen a storm of this magnitude since the 1970s, when helicopters needed to rescue cattle from deep snow.

The National Weather Service expected the severe weather to continue through Tuesday and gradually taper off as the storm moves east.

"Travel through the region will likely be extremely difficult...if not impossible during the day" on Tuesday, the service said.

By Brian Greene
December 20, 2011






Link


Should make for good sleigh landings. Joyeux Noël
Member Since: êواêر 27, 2009 Posts: 23 Comments: 1056
355. iceagecoming
04:35 PM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
By SUSAN MONTOYA BRYAN
updated 12/22/2011 2:00:13 PM ET

Print
Font:

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. — Rescuers on Wednesday pulled a Texas family from an SUV that had been buried in a snowdrift on a rural New Mexico highway for nearly two days.

State police said rescuers had to dig through 4 feet of ice and snow to free the Higgins family, whose red GMC Yukon got stuck on U.S. 56 near Springer when a blizzard moved through the area Monday.

Rescuers found David and Yvonne Higgins and their 5-year-old daughter Hannah clinging to each other and lethargic early Wednesday morning. The family is recovering at Miners Colfax Medical Center in Raton.

David Higgins told The Associated Press he and his wife both have pneumonia but his daughter is fine. He said he was glad to be able to talk about his ordeal because he had feared that he and his family might not be found.

Link


Member Since: êواêر 27, 2009 Posts: 23 Comments: 1056
354. LowerCal
02:58 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Quoting CosmicEvents:
Happy holidays to all....from the naivest denier who relies on FOX for their "news" to my fellow paid posters of AGW who are inclined to believe in the prevailing science and in the meantime grab what we can from whatever fruit is low-hanging....I wish you all well this holiday season. Good health and abundant New Year.

Paid!? We don't need no stinking pay! LOL

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to you Cosmic.
Member Since: êèنêè 26, 2006 Posts: 58 Comments: 9158
353. AlwaysThinkin
02:39 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
.
Member Since: أعس×س 9, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 394
352. AlwaysThinkin
02:38 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
.
Member Since: أعس×س 9, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 394
351. CosmicEvents
02:21 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Happy holidays to all....from the naivest denier who relies on FOX for their "news" to my fellow paid posters of AGW who are inclined to believe in the prevailing science and in the meantime grab what we can from whatever fruit is low-hanging....I wish you all well this holiday season. Good health and abundant New Year.
Member Since: أعس×س 3, 2005 Posts: 10 Comments: 5526
350. AlwaysThinkin
01:49 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Quoting nymore:
I see we are still using Skyepony to do the work and then taking her links. More proof of the brain power in New Orleans, zero no wonder that city is the armpit of the USA. You are a thief the story has been out since Sept. 8


Yeah he should have copied someone elses avitar of a volcano with lightning around it like a good classy Minnesota Vikqueen on this forum! Oooff dah! Also Cat5 also had a problem with New Orleanians. Just sayin'.
Member Since: أعس×س 9, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 394
349. Neapolitan
01:09 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Quoting NeapolitanFan:
Little Jimmy Hansen is caught doctoring data to make his AGW fraud stay afloat:

Link

The only person "caught" in this is (the likely nonexistent) "Steven Goddard". Caught, that is, proving yet again that doesn't understand the basics of climate, or how to read charts and graphs. Maybe he should stick with the coloring books they hand out in the institution in which he resides...
Member Since: وèلهبر 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13457
348. NeapolitanFan
12:52 AM GMT on دسمبر 24, 2011
Little Jimmy Hansen is caught doctoring data to make his AGW fraud stay afloat:

Link
Member Since: دسمبر 10, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 303
347. Patrap
10:44 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011


LSU Earth Scan Laboratory
Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
346. Xandra
10:04 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Merry Christmas Everyone!


MySpaceGraphicsandAnimations.com

Member Since: وèلهبر 22, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1281
345. cyclonebuster
06:58 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting nymore:
I see we are still using Skyepony to do the work and then taking her links. More proof of the brain power in New Orleans, zero no wonder that city is the armpit of the USA. You are a thief the story has been out since Sept. 8


I Googled this sentence.

"Parts of the supposedly pristine Arctic skies host dense clouds of these black carbon particles."

and found this article.

Link


It is on the net. What is your malfunction?
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
344. Patrap
06:16 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011


Uploaded by ChangingClimates on Apr 16, 2010


Scott Denning of the Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University gives a stripped-down explanation of the structure of greenhouse gas molecules like CO2 and how they trap heat in our atmosphere.



Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
343. Patrap
06:09 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011


Uploaded by ncarucar on Jul 14, 2009


Steven Wofsy explains the significance of the HIPPO missions (see http://www.ucar.edu/news/releases/2009/hippo.jsp ),

which allow scientists to look at the whole globe at once in great detail. When the project is complete, scientists will have a new picture of how greenhouse gases are entering and exiting the atmosphere as a result of natural processes and human activities. Steven Wofsy is a Harvard University scientist and HIPPO principal investigator.


Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
342. Neapolitan
06:00 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting nymore:
I see we are still using Skyepony to do the work and then taking her links. More proof of the brain power in New Orleans, zero no wonder that city is the armpit of the USA. You are a thief the story has been out since Sept. 8

Say, way to really add to the narrative! Keep it up!
Member Since: وèلهبر 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13457
341. Some1Has2BtheRookie
05:41 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting nymore:
I see we are still using Skyepony to do the work and then taking her links. More proof of the brain power in New Orleans, zero no wonder that city is the armpit of the USA. You are a thief the story has been out since Sept. 8


And this makes the story less relevant, how?
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
340. nymore
05:17 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting Patrap:
HIPPO reveals climate surprises
Swooping pole-to-pole plane flights uncover unexpected trends in pollutant releases and spread


By Janet Rayloff




A major pollution-mapping program that ends September 9 has turned up startling trends in climate-warming gases and soot. The data it collected over the past five years from a National Science Foundation aircraft show the tropics periodically belch huge plumes of nitrous oxide — a potent greenhouse gas — into the upper atmosphere. Arctic measurements show that the recent record summer retreats of ice cover have allowed seas there to exhale unexpected amounts of methane, another potent greenhouse gas.

Then there’s soot. Parts of the supposedly pristine Arctic skies host dense clouds of these black carbon particles. During some flights, “We were immersed in essentially clouds of black carbon that were dense enough that you could barely see the ground,” recalls Stephen Wofsy of Harvard University, a principal investigator in the program. “It was like landing in Los Angeles — except that you were 8 kilometers above the surface of the Arctic Ocean.”

Until a few years ago, scientists interested in mapping global emissions of climate-altering pollutants had to rely on Earth-based sensors or satellites’ eyes on the skies. Neither could identify at what altitude the pollutants tended to congregate. They also missed many highly localized or seasonal plumes of natural pollutants.

That all changed when a federal-university research partnership got access to NSF’s research plane: HIAPER (for High Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research). Throughout a number of periodic runs, this aircraft repeatedly swooped up and down — from 150 meters above Earth’s surface to heights sometimes exceeding 13.7 kilometers (45,000 feet). All along the way, its instruments measured more than 50 greenhouse gases and black carbon.

The unparalleled altitude- and latitude- specific data collected as part of this program — named HIPPO (for HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) — will soon be made available to researchers generally, notes Wofsy. He expects scientists will mine its data for many years, looking for additional climate trends.

Sky-truthing carbon dioxide levels
A primary goal of HIPPO was to investigate how well airborne pollutant concentrations match what computer models had predicted should exist. In some cases, as for soot, HIPPO data pointed to serious problems — oversimplifications — in those models. In other instances, such as for oxygen movement in and out of oceans, the new data generally validated computer predictions.

Currently, land plants and the oceans absorb roughly half of all carbon dioxide emitted, notes Britton Stephens, a scientist with the National Center on Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. But details on which parts of which ecosystems do it, under what circumstances and how efficiently remains somewhat of an open book. Simply put: “We don’t understand their behavior at the current time well enough to predict their behavior into the future,” he says.

So airborne observations have been repeatedly compared to what computer models predict. And one example of where the models need fine tuning involves carbon dioxide, HIPPO indicates.

It revealed “large plumes of carbon dioxide over the Arctic,” Stephens reported Sept. 7 at a news briefing. These plumes didn’t come from the Arctic, he says, but bled into Arctic skies from industrial centers throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

“This was a bit of a surprise,” he says, because models had suggested that much of the carbon dioxide should have been sucked up by plants and seas close to where the gas was being emitted.

Another instance of where the models appear to fall short is on how well the mixing of near-surface parcels of air homogenize carbon dioxide concentrations.

Stephens pointed to data collected earlier this week by the HIAPER aircraft during a run from Kona, Hawaii, to Anchorage, Alaska. “This is the time of year when we see peak uptake [of the gas]” as a result of photosynthesis in land plants, he explains. And HIPPO indeed observed a large depletion of carbon dioxide near the surface, he notes — except “we were measuring it over the middle of the Pacific Ocean.”

Computer analyses had predicted a greater degree of mixing of clean and polluted air parcels, he says. Instead, there were sharp gradients in the gas among closely sampled regions.

Elsewhere, HIPPO offered welcome confirmation of a different model prediction: large plumes of oxygen coming out of the southern oceans during the austral summer. Stephens attributes these massive releases to the uptake of carbon dioxide by photosynthetic bacteria in the warming seas. Currently, it’s winter in the South. And HIPPO has just measured the opposite trend, Stephens says: a seasonal absorption of oxygen by oceans there.

Similar trends for these gases have been observed before throughout the Northern Hemisphere. But HIPPO shows that this normal pattern of winter absorption of oxygen and summer absorption of carbon dioxide “is somewhat decoupled” in the southern oceans. Indeed, Stephens concludes, at times “it was almost more significant that we measured an anti-correlation between oxygen and carbon dioxide than the actual numbers [of how much of either was present].”
Other revelations
More unexpected, Wofsy says, was the March 2010 finding of “a significant excess over the tropics of greenhouse gases — especially nitrous oxide — very high up in the atmosphere. That hadn’t been predicted by any models.”

So radical were the data that his team rushed them into print. Those data show a “bulge” in nitrous oxide emissions between the equator and 20° North latitude.

“It is clear that the enhanced nitrous oxide seen at altitude is a product of tropical emissions lofted to the middle and upper troposphere by convection,” the authors conclude in the Aug. 6, 2011, Geophysical Research Letters. HIPPO data alone cannot confirm whether the release of this gas represents a “winking on and off” of emissions on time scales of days to weeks, the researchers said, or whether the releases occur more chronically but only occasionally shoot up to altitudes of between 2 kilometers and 14 kilometers.

The best explanation for these data, Wofsy and his coauthors write, is that rainfall or regional flooding spurs production of the gas (probably by soil microbes) — and when this coincides with sharp atmospheric updrafts, the pollutant is propelled high into the skies.

Something too new to fully understand (although a report on it is being prepared for publication), Wofsy says, is a finding of notable concentrations of methane in the Arctic’s atmosphere that trace back to the sea.

“Oceanographers have known for some time that there is production of methane in surface waters of the Arctic,” he says, but “it’s never been observed in the atmosphere.” Those oceanographic data, he says, suggest a source for this methane other than sediments or the melting of icy gas hydrates.

The phenomenon also appears very widespread. “We observed that the ocean surface releases methane to the atmosphere all over the whole of the Arctic Ocean,” Wofsy says.

Climate scientists have been concerned about whether the Arctic Ocean's loss of summer ice cover might lead, through some feedback mechanisms, to boosting the release of methane. Concludes Wofsy: Thanks to HIPPO, “This hypothesized feedback has been observed for the first time.” And there are hints, he adds, that methane’s source may be something other than melting of gas hydrates.

One notable take-home message from HIPPO: Climate-altering pollution from the Northern Hemisphere — home to 95 percent of humanity — has been migrating everywhere, even into southern skies, says James Elkins of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in Boulder. The data are “just very persuasive.”

Indeed, Wofsy adds, after reviewing HIPPO data, you’re left with an impression that pollution associated with human activities has exerted “an overwhelming influence” on Earth’s atmosphere. And that’s not, he adds, reassuring.




I see we are still using Skyepony to do the work and then taking her links. More proof of the brain power in New Orleans, zero no wonder that city is the armpit of the USA. You are a thief the story has been out since Sept. 8
Member Since: êèنêè 6, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2255
339. Patrap
04:42 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
HIPPO reveals climate surprises
Swooping pole-to-pole plane flights uncover unexpected trends in pollutant releases and spread


By Janet Rayloff




A major pollution-mapping program that ends September 9 has turned up startling trends in climate-warming gases and soot. The data it collected over the past five years from a National Science Foundation aircraft show the tropics periodically belch huge plumes of nitrous oxide — a potent greenhouse gas — into the upper atmosphere. Arctic measurements show that the recent record summer retreats of ice cover have allowed seas there to exhale unexpected amounts of methane, another potent greenhouse gas.

Then there’s soot. Parts of the supposedly pristine Arctic skies host dense clouds of these black carbon particles. During some flights, “We were immersed in essentially clouds of black carbon that were dense enough that you could barely see the ground,” recalls Stephen Wofsy of Harvard University, a principal investigator in the program. “It was like landing in Los Angeles — except that you were 8 kilometers above the surface of the Arctic Ocean.”

Until a few years ago, scientists interested in mapping global emissions of climate-altering pollutants had to rely on Earth-based sensors or satellites’ eyes on the skies. Neither could identify at what altitude the pollutants tended to congregate. They also missed many highly localized or seasonal plumes of natural pollutants.

That all changed when a federal-university research partnership got access to NSF’s research plane: HIAPER (for High Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research). Throughout a number of periodic runs, this aircraft repeatedly swooped up and down — from 150 meters above Earth’s surface to heights sometimes exceeding 13.7 kilometers (45,000 feet). All along the way, its instruments measured more than 50 greenhouse gases and black carbon.

The unparalleled altitude- and latitude- specific data collected as part of this program — named HIPPO (for HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) — will soon be made available to researchers generally, notes Wofsy. He expects scientists will mine its data for many years, looking for additional climate trends.

Sky-truthing carbon dioxide levels
A primary goal of HIPPO was to investigate how well airborne pollutant concentrations match what computer models had predicted should exist. In some cases, as for soot, HIPPO data pointed to serious problems — oversimplifications — in those models. In other instances, such as for oxygen movement in and out of oceans, the new data generally validated computer predictions.

Currently, land plants and the oceans absorb roughly half of all carbon dioxide emitted, notes Britton Stephens, a scientist with the National Center on Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. But details on which parts of which ecosystems do it, under what circumstances and how efficiently remains somewhat of an open book. Simply put: “We don’t understand their behavior at the current time well enough to predict their behavior into the future,” he says.

So airborne observations have been repeatedly compared to what computer models predict. And one example of where the models need fine tuning involves carbon dioxide, HIPPO indicates.

It revealed “large plumes of carbon dioxide over the Arctic,” Stephens reported Sept. 7 at a news briefing. These plumes didn’t come from the Arctic, he says, but bled into Arctic skies from industrial centers throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

“This was a bit of a surprise,” he says, because models had suggested that much of the carbon dioxide should have been sucked up by plants and seas close to where the gas was being emitted.

Another instance of where the models appear to fall short is on how well the mixing of near-surface parcels of air homogenize carbon dioxide concentrations.

Stephens pointed to data collected earlier this week by the HIAPER aircraft during a run from Kona, Hawaii, to Anchorage, Alaska. “This is the time of year when we see peak uptake [of the gas]” as a result of photosynthesis in land plants, he explains. And HIPPO indeed observed a large depletion of carbon dioxide near the surface, he notes — except “we were measuring it over the middle of the Pacific Ocean.”

Computer analyses had predicted a greater degree of mixing of clean and polluted air parcels, he says. Instead, there were sharp gradients in the gas among closely sampled regions.

Elsewhere, HIPPO offered welcome confirmation of a different model prediction: large plumes of oxygen coming out of the southern oceans during the austral summer. Stephens attributes these massive releases to the uptake of carbon dioxide by photosynthetic bacteria in the warming seas. Currently, it’s winter in the South. And HIPPO has just measured the opposite trend, Stephens says: a seasonal absorption of oxygen by oceans there.

Similar trends for these gases have been observed before throughout the Northern Hemisphere. But HIPPO shows that this normal pattern of winter absorption of oxygen and summer absorption of carbon dioxide “is somewhat decoupled” in the southern oceans. Indeed, Stephens concludes, at times “it was almost more significant that we measured an anti-correlation between oxygen and carbon dioxide than the actual numbers [of how much of either was present].”
Other revelations
More unexpected, Wofsy says, was the March 2010 finding of “a significant excess over the tropics of greenhouse gases — especially nitrous oxide — very high up in the atmosphere. That hadn’t been predicted by any models.”

So radical were the data that his team rushed them into print. Those data show a “bulge” in nitrous oxide emissions between the equator and 20° North latitude.

“It is clear that the enhanced nitrous oxide seen at altitude is a product of tropical emissions lofted to the middle and upper troposphere by convection,” the authors conclude in the Aug. 6, 2011, Geophysical Research Letters. HIPPO data alone cannot confirm whether the release of this gas represents a “winking on and off” of emissions on time scales of days to weeks, the researchers said, or whether the releases occur more chronically but only occasionally shoot up to altitudes of between 2 kilometers and 14 kilometers.

The best explanation for these data, Wofsy and his coauthors write, is that rainfall or regional flooding spurs production of the gas (probably by soil microbes) — and when this coincides with sharp atmospheric updrafts, the pollutant is propelled high into the skies.

Something too new to fully understand (although a report on it is being prepared for publication), Wofsy says, is a finding of notable concentrations of methane in the Arctic’s atmosphere that trace back to the sea.

“Oceanographers have known for some time that there is production of methane in surface waters of the Arctic,” he says, but “it’s never been observed in the atmosphere.” Those oceanographic data, he says, suggest a source for this methane other than sediments or the melting of icy gas hydrates.

The phenomenon also appears very widespread. “We observed that the ocean surface releases methane to the atmosphere all over the whole of the Arctic Ocean,” Wofsy says.

Climate scientists have been concerned about whether the Arctic Ocean's loss of summer ice cover might lead, through some feedback mechanisms, to boosting the release of methane. Concludes Wofsy: Thanks to HIPPO, “This hypothesized feedback has been observed for the first time.” And there are hints, he adds, that methane’s source may be something other than melting of gas hydrates.

One notable take-home message from HIPPO: Climate-altering pollution from the Northern Hemisphere — home to 95 percent of humanity — has been migrating everywhere, even into southern skies, says James Elkins of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in Boulder. The data are “just very persuasive.”

Indeed, Wofsy adds, after reviewing HIPPO data, you’re left with an impression that pollution associated with human activities has exerted “an overwhelming influence” on Earth’s atmosphere. And that’s not, he adds, reassuring.




Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
338. cyclonebuster
04:41 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting overwash12:
I am going to go out on a limb and say that he was being sarcastic!


Is it possible to be sarcastic and realistic at the same time?
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
337. overwash12
04:35 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting cyclonebuster:


That's a great way to live. Imagine 7 billion people each digging a hole to use the restroom then burying it or you know what might be better? We could share the holes we dug. More power to you!
I am going to go out on a limb and say that he was being sarcastic!
Member Since: êèوêè 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1457
336. cyclonebuster
03:39 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting martinitony:


I don't know why you'd knock N. Korea. They are a fine example of how Marxism can and does reduce carbon footprints. My guess is that Cuba does okay also. They could do better, but Castro has gone a little easy on the comrades in my opinion.


That's a great way to live. Imagine 7 billion people each digging a hole to use the restroom then burying it or you know what might be better? We could share the holes we dug. More power to you!
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
335. martinitony
03:00 PM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting ConformOrBeCastOut:
Even if it is not true that overall carbon footprint doesn't really decrease as countries develop because the drop in population is more than offset by the extra resources consumed and it's a "truism" as Rood said -
Even if he's right about that, who are we in the 1st world with all the modern conveniences and high life expectancy and all the positive things that modern industry gives us to live relatively easy lives - who are we to tell the 3rd world that they aren't allowed to have all those things that better humanity as well, it's inhumane to suggest that any sovereign be kept from further industrializing? Look at N. Korea's meager carbon footprint compared to South Korea's, and the quality of life indicators and see where you'd rather reside:



I don't know why you'd knock N. Korea. They are a fine example of how Marxism can and does reduce carbon footprints. My guess is that Cuba does okay also. They could do better, but Castro has gone a little easy on the comrades in my opinion.
Member Since: êèنêè 29, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 970
334. cyclonebuster
05:21 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


Check your mail. We can discuss this through mail.


Likewise.
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
333. Some1Has2BtheRookie
04:59 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting cyclonebuster:


This gets us out of that MESS!

Link

I would like to hear your pros and cons of my idea.
Perhaps,I can change your mind on the cons?



.


Check your mail. We can discuss this through mail.
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
332. cyclonebuster
04:05 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


North Korea's form of government, a repressive regime, is why they have a low carbon footprint. I understand what your point is. You just used a poor example to illustrate it.

Either we act, on a global level, to reduce the global carbon footprint, or no nation will have a booming economy by 2100. No citizens, of any nation, will enjoy the benefits we have seen already. Truth of the matter is, there will not be enough resources available to us in the future. With or without AGW, this will be true. Clean water, clean air and lands for growing crops will be at a premium by 2100.


This gets us out of that MESS!

Link

I would like to hear your pros and cons of my idea.
Perhaps,I can change your mind on the cons?



.
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
331. Some1Has2BtheRookie
04:01 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting ConformOrBeCastOut:
Even if it is not true that overall carbon footprint doesn't really decrease as countries develop because the drop in population is more than offset by the extra resources consumed and it's a "truism" as Rood said -
Even if he's right about that, who are we in the 1st world with all the modern conveniences and high life expectancy and all the positive things that modern industry gives us to live relatively easy lives - who are we to tell the 3rd world that they aren't allowed to have all those things that better humanity as well, it's inhumane to suggest that any sovereign be kept from further industrializing? Look at N. Korea's meager carbon footprint compared to South Korea's, and the quality of life indicators and see where you'd rather reside:



North Korea's form of government, a repressive regime, is why they have a low carbon footprint. I understand what your point is. You just used a poor example to illustrate it.

Either we act, on a global level, to reduce the global carbon footprint, or no nation will have a booming economy by 2100. No citizens, of any nation, will enjoy the benefits we have seen already. Truth of the matter is, there will not be enough resources available to us in the future. With or without AGW, this will be true. Clean water, clean air and lands for growing crops will be at a premium by 2100.
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
329. Some1Has2BtheRookie
03:43 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting Ossqss:


My question would be simple ,,,, Why?

Is it just me that can see the enigma being scribbled over?





I know that this is just my opinion but, I believe that any post that lacks profanity, or threats against others, should be visible. This is true even for when you are not logged into your account. The "Hide" button should remain but, it should only apply for the one that chose to "hide" a comment and for that comment only. Any rating system should be left in the mind of the one that is doing the reading of the posts. Admin would still determine any posts that would warrant removal.
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
328. cyclonebuster
03:32 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting ConformOrBeCastOut:
Even if it is not true that overall carbon footprint doesn't really decrease as countries develop because the drop in population is more than offset by the extra resources consumed and it's a "truism" as Rood said -
Even if he's right about that, who are we in the 1st world with all the modern conveniences and high life expectancy and all the positive things that modern industry gives us to live relatively easy lives - who are we to tell the 3rd world that they aren't allowed to have all those things that better humanity as well, it's inhumane to suggest that any sovereign be kept from further industrializing? Look at N. Korea's meager carbon footprint compared to South Korea's, and the quality of life indicators and see where you'd rather reside:



It's more like we do not practice what we preach. If we don't practice what we preach then why should other countries respect us? Truth being said mankind uses so much energy we will always need fossil fuel even it means we use it for just voltage control and Power Factor ( var ) regulation. Sadly, no one listens to my idea which can get us out of this mess altogether.

Link



.
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
327. Some1Has2BtheRookie
03:28 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting Ossqss:
Hummm, "Word up" to the slanderous one who continues to defame without regard to his own liability.

Your Cameo's are visible to more than you think... \\

That dog is gonna bite you!


Blogger Loses Defamation Case, Judge Weighs in on Who is "Really" a Journalist




I really wanted to post the Korn version :)



Political speech is protected. Slander still applies to conversations about others. ... Have you sent this link to Watts at WUWT? He may need to take a long look at this.
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
326. ConformOrBeCastOut
02:54 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
325. Ossqss
02:23 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Quoting LowerCal:

Hitting the minus on *anyone's* comment does not change the plus count. It has been that way since the plus count was implemented.

See for yourself.


My question would be simple ,,,, Why?

Is it just me that can see the enigma being scribbled over?



Member Since: êèوêè 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8185
324. Ossqss
01:25 AM GMT on دسمبر 23, 2011
Hummm, "Word up" to the slanderous one who continues to defame without regard to his own liability.

Your Cameo's are visible to more than you think... \\

That dog is gonna bite you!


Blogger Loses Defamation Case, Judge Weighs in on Who is "Really" a Journalist




I really wanted to post the Korn version :)

Member Since: êèوêè 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8185
323. Patrap
10:41 PM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
Quoting LowerCal:

Hitting the minus on *anyone's* comment does not change the plus count. It has been that way since the plus count was implemented.

See for yourself.


Most knew dat.

Seems some were of a different mind.

The System is a Logic based algorithm so go fig'ya, eh?


Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
322. LowerCal
10:37 PM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
Quoting Ossqss:
Hummmm, here is a test for you. I just hit the minus on a hipocritical post from an extemist alarmist (who gets paid to post) and much to my surprise, it did not change the count. Go figure, they now alter post data to aid the cause. LOL !

See for yourself......

Hitting the minus on *anyone's* comment does not change the plus count. It has been that way since the plus count was implemented.

See for yourself.
Member Since: êèنêè 26, 2006 Posts: 58 Comments: 9158
321. Patrap
08:17 PM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
, does anyone really listen to him anymore?

Hmmm, I can think of a few easily..

But dats a rather tender subject..


: )
Member Since: êèنêè 3, 2005 Posts: 420 Comments: 127549
320. cyclonebuster
08:15 PM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
This

Link

prevents this by producing electrical power which will prevent fossil fuel consumption thus lowering carbonic acid levels in the oceans. Ya'll with me yet?


Ocean Acidification: Some Organisms Already Experiencing Ocean Acidification Levels Not Predicted to Be Reached Until 2100

ScienceDaily (Dec. 22, 2011) — A group of 19 scientists from five research organizations have conducted the broadest field study of ocean acidification to date using sensors developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.The study was recently reported the journal PLoS One. It is an important step toward understanding how specific ecosystems are responding to the change in seawater chemistry that is being caused as the oceans take up extra carbon dioxide produced by human greenhouse gas emissions, said its authors. "These data represent a critical step in understanding the consequences of ocean change: the linkage of present-day pH exposures to organismal tolerance and how this translates into ecological change in marine ecosystems," the authors wrote.

"These pH time series create a compelling argument for the collection of more continuous data of this kind." Ocean acidification research is a relatively new study topic as scientists have only appreciated the potential extent of acidification within the last decade. As greenhouse gas emissions have accelerated in the past century, the oceans have taken up about a third of the carbon dioxide produced by human activities. That excess beyond natural levels increases amounts of carbonic acid in seawater. Acidification also limits the amount of carbonate forms that are needed by marine invertebrates such as coral and shelled organisms to form their skeletons. Though many lab simulations of this effect have been performed recently, including at a new acidification laboratory in development at Scripps, there have been few comparable field studies. Using sensors recently developed at Scripps, the researchers surveyed marine ecosystems ranging from coral reefs in the South Pacific Ocean to volcanic CO2 vent communities in the Mediterranean Sea.

They found that in some places, such as Antarctica and the Line Islands of the south Pacific, the range of pH variance is much more limited than in areas of the California coast subject to large vertical movements of water known as upwellings. In some of their study areas, they found that the decrease in seawater pH being caused by greenhouse gas emissions is still within the bounds of natural pH fluctuation. Some areas already experience daily acidity levels that scientists had expected would only be reached at the end of the 21st Century.

"This study is important for identifying the complexity of the ocean acidification problem around the globe," said Scripps marine biologist Jennifer Smith. "Our data show such huge variability in seawater pH both within and across marine ecosystems making global predictions of the impacts of ocean acidification a big challenge. Some ecosystems such as coral reefs experience a daily range in pH that exceeds the predicted decrease in pH over the next century. While these data suggest that marine organisms may be more adapted to fluctuations in pH than previously thought much more research is needed to determine how individual species will respond over time. Importantly, these new sensors allow us continuously and autonomously monitor pH from remote parts of the world and thus provide us with important baselines from which we can monitor future changes caused by ocean acidification."

Because many in the marine chemistry community have expressed concerns that ocean acidification could happen too rapidly for some organisms to adapt, the researchers said that this finding is an important step toward identifying the mechanisms some marine organisms have developed in order to cope. They also said that knowledge of actual pH ranges in various ecosystems should improve assumptions about future pH levels that can only rely on broad generalizations about seawater chemistry. Furthermore it could guide future lab and field studies that investigate the limits of resistance and resilience in various marine communities.

The researchers used "SeaFET" and "SeapHOx" sensors developed at Scripps by marine chemistry researcher Todd Martz. The sensors can measure pH and temperature in the top 70 meters (230 feet) of the ocean. Since 2009, Martz's team has constructed 52 sensors, which have been used by 13 different research groups to study individual ecosystems.

"This collaboration was not planned; it just naturally formed as several of my colleagues requested replicates of a pH sensor that I built while working as a postdoc in Ken Johnson's group at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)," said Martz. "When I arrived at Scripps, we re-engineered my prototype design and since then I have not been able to keep up with all of the requests for sensors. Because every sensor used in this study was built at Scripps, I was in a unique position to assimilate a number of datasets, collected independently by researchers that otherwise would not have been in communication with each other. Each time someone deployed a sensor, they would send me the data and eventually it became clear that a synthesis should be done to cross-compare this diverse collection of measurements."

Deployed in the ocean over the course of months or years, the sensors are also able to record important data about how pH fluctuates over time. As data accumulates, the researchers suggested that the field data could identify ocean regions especially vulnerable to the effects of ocean acidification or areas that provide natural protections to organisms at risk.

"Such knowledge could enable protection, management, and remediation of critical marine habitats and populations in the future," wrote the authors.

Despite surveying 15 different ocean regions, the authors noted that they only made observations on coastal surface oceans and that more study is needed in deeper ocean regions farther away from land. Martz noted that large-scale programs such as Argo, a network of more than 3,000 floats distributed throughout the oceans that measures fundamental data.

"The Honeywell DuraFET pH sensor used in the SeaFET has been a great tool for characterizing shallow sites from moorings and for use in shipboard underway systems," Martz said. "The next challenge will be observing the pH of the entire ocean from top to bottom without using ships. I am really excited about the prospect of adding these sensors to mobile autonomous platforms like profiling floats, gliders, and drifters. In fact we continue to work with Ken Johnson and MBARI to make this a reality. I think you can expect to see a pH sensor sending back data from an Argo-type profiling float at some point in 2012."

Link

.
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393
319. overwash12
07:51 PM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
Quoting Neapolitan:

Multiple news sources are needed, as Rookie just noted. However, several university studies have shown that Fox viewers are the most misinformed of all cable news viewers. No such study says the same of MSNBC viewers, so equating the two is a bit disingenuous.
Yeah true,but when you get the news,I trust you want it fair and balanced! Shiver me timbers!
Member Since: êèوêè 24, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1457
318. Some1Has2BtheRookie
04:51 PM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
Interesting reading. I have heard of using constructed wetlands for sewage treatment. An extremely scalable system that will work for individuals, municipalities and industrial sites:

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN THE
SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE
Member Since: أعس×س 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4737
317. Neapolitan
10:52 AM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
Quoting Ossqss:

Since we are playing oldies :)

Let's see, climategate 1 and 2 and soon 3?

The very good read of the The Delinquent Teenager Who Was Mistaken for the World's Top Climate Expert

Let alone the numerous papers that just get swept under the carpet yet poke the legs out from under the settled science.

So, have some more propaganda that is scientifically indisputable if you will >~


My, but some people have their heads in the clouds. Between Lindzen's discredited insistence that clouds will prevent warming (they haven't and won't), his continuing belief that there's no strong link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer (he was a an oft-quoted pro-tobacco expert back in the day), his affinity for ExxonMobil, and his magical belief that the planet's climate sensitivity is less than one degree Celsius (already exceeded), does anyone really listen to him anymore?
Member Since: وèلهبر 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13457
316. cyclonebuster
03:29 AM GMT on دسمبر 22, 2011
This Link is as good to Earth as Jackie is to your ears!




img src="">
Member Since: êواêر 2, 2006 Posts: 127 Comments: 20393

Viewing: 366 - 316

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8Blog Index

Top of Page

About RickyRood

I'm a professor at U Michigan and lead a course on climate change problem solving. These articles often come from and contribute to the course.